Calibration & Mechanism Methods
We develop novel methods for calibrating pulse wave models and understanding physical mechanisms underlying the simulated pulse waveforms.

We are currently working on translating Nektar1D to the clinic. To help fulfil this aim we have (i) created a methodology for reducing the number of arterial segments (and hence input parameters) required to simulate accuretly, using nonlinear 1-D modelling, the blood pressure and flow waveforms at an arbitrary site/s in a given arterial network (J R Soc Interface, 2018; Am J Physiol, 2015), and (ii) developed physics-based methods for estimating mechanical properties of the arterial wall (J Eng Math, 2012) and calibrating 0-D outflow Windkessel models (J R Soc Interface, 2016; Int J Numer Meth Biomed Engng, 2014; Commun Comput Phys, 2008) from data that can be measured in vivo.
We have reviewed and developed several methods for studying physical mechanisms underlying the patterns of arterial blood pressure and flow waveforms: wave intensity analysis and separation of waves into forward and backward, peripheral and conduit, reservoir and excess (Ann Biomed Eng, 2016).

We have developed novel models of blood flow in human arteries that enable analytical solutions for the blood pressure and flow waveforms (Ann. Biomed. Eng., 2016). This approach opens up a new avenue for blood flow research, as analytical solutions make it possible to directly identify the role that the biophysical properties of the heart and vasculature play in shaping the pressure and flow waveforms.

So far, we have applied this approach to develop a methodology for estimating central pulse pressure (PP) from non-invasive measurements of aortic flow and peripheral PP (Frontiers Physiol, 2021). This is based on a comprehensive understanding of the main cardiovascular properties that determine pulse pressure amplification along the aortic-brachial arterial path, namely flow wave morphology in late systole, and vessel radius and distance along this arterial path.