Nektar1D is our in-house code for solving the nonlinear, one-dimensional (1-D) equations of blood flow in a given network of compliant vessels subject to boundary and initial conditions
. To request all the files needed to compile Nektar1D on your computer, together with examples of 1-D model simulations used in our articles, please drop an email to firstname.lastname@example.org
You can download a reference manual
for Nektar1D describing how to compile the code, create and run your own simulations, and interpret the results from here
For a review on arterial pulse wave haemodynamics
and a description of the 1-D equations and the numerical scheme used to solve them in Nektar1D, we refer to the following publications:
Arterial pulse wave modelling and analysis for vascular age studies: a review from VascAgeNet.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.,
Arterial pulse wave haemodynamics.
In Anderson S (Ed.), 11th International Conference on Pressure Surges,
Virtual PiE Led t/a BHR Group,
Chapter 7, 401–442, 2012.
Several tools for analysing the simulated pressure and flow waveforms
are described in the following articles:
Arterial pressure and flow wave analysis using time-domain 1-D hemodynamics.
Ann. Biomed. Eng.
43(1), 190–206, 2014.
Assessing mental stress from the photoplethysmogram: a numerical study.
39(5), 054001, 2018.
1-D modelling provides a good balance between accuracy and computational cost
, as we have demonstrated by comparison against
(i) experimental data in a 1:1 scale cardiovascular simulator rig of the aorta and its larger branches made of silicone tubes (J Biomech, 2011
(ii) in vivo
data in humans (J Royal Soc Interface, 2016
), rabbits (J. Biomech, 2009
(iii) numerical data obtained by solving the full 3-D equations of blood flow in compliant vessels (J Royal Soc Interface, 2021
; Ann Biomed Eng, 2016
; Int J Numer Meth Biomed Engng, 2015
We have used Nektar1D to create populations of thousands of virtual subjects
for in silico
evaluation of pulse wave indices and algorithms (Symmetry, 2021
; Am J Physiol, 2015
; J Biomech, 2016
). Nektar1D has also been used in the clinically relevant studies described here
Nektar1D has recently been coupled to a 3-D cardiac electromechanics model
that allows us to study the effects of pulse wave propagation on cardiac function (Comput Mech, 2022